B3 -  -
B3 Deficiency of nicotinic acid (niacin - vitamin B3) in diet causing skin eruptions, nervous disorders & gastrointestinal disturbances. Webster's dictionary 1979
B3 @ - 2023-07-24 -
or more easily utilized Niacinamide in divided dosage -

“'If we see epidemiology of 2nd wave of COVID-19 in India, it has mainly affected state of Maharashtra, which is contributing almost 50% of the active case load of whole India. Main staple food of Maharashtra is Jowar (sorghum). Jowar has excess leucine13, which inhibits conversion of tryptophan to niacin leading to niacin deficiency, known to cause pellagra,' Dr. Gharote wrote. 
He recommended niacinamide as a supportive treatment for COVID-19 & to help prevent transmission...
An epidemic of pellagra, a disease characterized by dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis, & death,
ravaged the United States in the 1930s & early ’40s. It was discovered that the root cause of the disease was B3 deficiency. There were about 3 million cases, with about 100,000 reported deaths.
This disease especially targeted impoverished Southerners, who died at a higher rate than residents of any other region.
After the federal government mandated adding niacinamide to flour, the pellagra epidemic ended."

Chchoke, Dr Anthonyh J The Complete Book of Enzyme Therapy foreword by Dr Hoffer, Abram cites the hypothesis of Rudin, Dr D who contends that pellagra is due to a prostaglandin deficiency, Prostaglandins are made from essential fatty acids. 
Pellagra may occur due to a deficiency of (a) essential fatty acids (omega 3 &/or omega 6 oils) or a deficiency of (b) minerals &/or vitamins (especially B3 &/or B6) needed for enzymes to make needed transformations. 
The 2nd type Rudin calls "
substrate pellagra" when the "substrate essential fatty acids" are lacking. 
Enzymes need such cofactors & substrates to optimize body utilization of food.
Kummerow, Fred A - - "In our (Andrew Saul) October 2014 column, I had the honor & privilege of interviewing Professor Fred A. Kummerow, Ph.D., near his 100th birthday.
You may remember 2-part interview entitled 'From Pellagra to Trans Fats & Beyond.
How a Legendary Nutritional Scientist Is Still Saving Countless Thousands From Premature Deaths.' (1). 

Dr. Kummerow’s life-saving nutritional efforts began with helping to wipe out the deadly pellagra epidemic in the United States. Thanks to researchers including Drs. Kummerow, Joseph Goldberger & Conrad Elvehjem, pellagra is essentially non-existent today in the U.S. Pellagra is a disease that was present before 1938 in the southeastern United States. It is a deficiency of niacin (vitamin B3). The symptoms of pellagra are swelling of the lips & tongue & swelling of the arms to the point that the skin breaks open.
When it reaches this stage, the people usually die. 

When Professor Kummerow arrived at Clemson, SC, in 1943, thousands of people were still dying of pellagra. Some 3,000–6,000 people were dying each year (about 5 per 100,000 population).
He figured out how to put niacin in corn grits, a food staple

in the south. By 1945, there were only 12 deaths from pellagra & it is rare today.
It’s now more than 70 years later & pellagra is extremely rare, so that’s roughly 250,000 lives he saved from premature death." - Nixtamalized corn has several benefits over unprocessed grain:

It is more easily ground, its nutritional value is increased, flavor aroma are improved, mycotoxins are reduced by up to 97%–100% (for aflatoxins).[2]

Lime & ash are highly alkaline: the alkalinity helps the dissolution of hemicellulose, the major glue-like component of the maize cell walls, & loosens the hulls from the kernels & softens the maize.
Corn's hemicellulose-bound 
niacin is converted to free niacin (a form of 
vitamin B3), making it available for absorption into the body, thus helping to prevent pellagra.[3]
The Aztec & Mayan civilizations used slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) & lye (potassium hydroxide).
(Today corn/masa-harina flour is prepared with a dash of acidic calcium added to the water.)

The major psychoses and neuroses as omega-3 essential fatty acid deficiency syndrome: substrate pellagra. 
Biol Psychiatry. 1981 Sep;16(9):837-50. Rudin DO.
 Pellagra was once a major cause of 3 behaviorally different mental disorders-schizophreniform, manic-depressive-like, & phobic neurotic + drying dermatoses, autonomic neuropathies, tinnitus, & fatigue.

In this preliminary study all 3 of the corresponding present-day mental diseases are found to exhibit, statistically, the same pellagraform physical disorders but to ameliorate not so much with vitamins as with supplements of a newly discovered trace omega-3 essential fatty acid (w3-EFA), which provides the substrate upon which niacin & other B vitamin holoenzymes act uniquely to form the prostaglandin 3 series tissue hormones regulating neurocircuits en block. Since present-day refining & food selection patterns, as well as pure corn diets, deplete both the B vitamins & W3-EFA, the existence of therapeutically cross-reacting homologous catalyst & substrate deficiency forms of pellagra are postulated, the 1st contributing to the B vitamin deficiency epidemics of 50-100 years ago, the 2nd to the more recent endemic "Diseases of Western Civilization" which express in certain genetic subgroups as the major mental illnesses of today.
Rudin, DO (1982) 
The dominant diseases of modernized societies as omega-3 essential fatty acid deficiency syndrome." Medical Hypotheses
About 1900, modern food selection and processing caused widespread epidemics of the B vitamin deficiency diseases of beriberi & pellagra which, for genetic reasons, often expressed as different diseases ranging from bowel & heart disease to dermatoses & psychoses. But the B vitamins merely help convert essential fatty acids (EFA) into the prostaglandin (PG) tissue regulators & it now turns out that, through hydrogenation, milling & selection of w3-poor southern foods, we have also been systematically depleting, by as much as 90%, a newly discovered trace Nordic EFA (w3) of special importance to primates & sole precursor of the PG3(4) series, even as a concurrent fiber deficiency increases body demand for EFA. Since substrate EFA is processed by many B vitamin catalysts, an EFA deficiency will mimic a panhypovitaminosis B, i.e., a mixture of substrate beriberi & substrate pellagra resembling vitamin beriberi & pellagra but exhibiting as even more diverse endemic disease. This would constitute a 2nd stage of the Modern Malnutrition & explain why some workers now hold the dominant diseases of modernized societies to be new, nutritionally based, pellagraform yet lipid-related & to range, once again, from heart disease to psychosis. It is an assumption that our dominant diseases are unrelated to each other or are merely revealed by out diagnostic acumen & therapeutic success; & that hydrogenating millions of tons of food oils annually, to destroy the rancidity producing w30EFA, is safe for primates. Extensive beriberiform disease is reported here in 32 typical cases taken from medical practice which responds strikingly to linseed oil supplements (60% w3-EFA) in confirmation of identical results in Capuchins.