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Breggin, Peter @ Peter R. Breggin M.D. | Psychiatric Drug Facts

https://reformedbiblicalcoaching.wordpress.com/2010/11/27/s-t-e-p-u-p-to-christ-centered-biblical-counseling-services/ 2011 post - Bufford, Rodger K., Addressing religious/spiritual concerns in psychotherapy especially recommending a new DSM for spiritual issues & in particular regarding schizophrenia.
1st impression is that editorial is mostly addressing fundamentalist Christian counselors
rather than Charismatic Catholics, who do condone exorcism +
the baptism and operation of the Holy Spirit beginning with confirmation sacrament.

Footnote  #17. Counseling and the Demonic Rodger K. Bufford – 1988 – full text https://digitalcommons.georgefox.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=counselingandthedemonic Cited in Chapters 7. Demon Possession 8. Demonic Influence and Mental Disorders 9. Assessment and Diagnosis of Demonic Influence @ https://digitalcommons.georgefox.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1000&context=counselingandthedemonic
@ https://digitalcommons.georgefox.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=counselingandthedemonic COUNSELING & THE DEMONIC functioning, referral to other helpers, counseling strategies, & use of spiritual resources.
SPIRITUAL PREPARATIONS Spiritual preparations have been addressed previously. It is important for the counselor to approach the interventions presented in this chapter with those same spiritual prep­arations.
1. We must acknowledge that people actually may come under demonic influence or control.
2. We must know the most common historical and behavioral indicators of possible demonic influence.
3. We must be aware that any form of false worship, or any habitual pattern of sinful conduct, makes one potentially liable to demonic influence.
4. It is imperative to ensure the full, voluntary cooperation of the person involved unless he or she is so incapacitated as to be unable to choose to cooperate. To do less is to go beyond what even God would do (also, informed consent is a basic principle of professional ethics).1 In these ways we may more readily & promptly recognize demonic influence when it is present.
5. The counselor must be spiritually prepared for confronting demonic influence. The Christian counselor-indeed anyone who encounters the demonic-is foolish to proceed without it. Such preparation includes a personal relationship with God; confession & repentance of all known personal sin; & a basic understanding of scriptural principles regarding sin, Satan, and the demonic, as well as the principles and practice of godly living (see chapter 10). Specifically, as counselors we must submit ourselves to God and be fi lled with the Holy Spirit, equip ourselves with the resources God provides in the "armor of God," & personally resist Satan in our own lives. This requires practicing the basic spiritual disciplines of confession, prayer, worship, fellowship, Bible study, memorization, meditation, & spiritual service. This is important for the protection of the counselor as well as the person receiving counsel.
Counseling Approaches METHODS AND GOALS OF COUNSELING Beyond the preparations for counseling, there are 2 other major areas of concern in the counseling relationship. The 1st has to do with the means employed, the 2nd with the goals of counseling. The legitimacy of both means and goals must be evaluated according to biblical teachings. Methods We often hear the expression ''I'd give anything to...." Such an approach to life is inconsistent with God-given stand­ards, and opens the person to potential demonic influence. In effect, this approach makes the goal, whatever it is, more im­portant than submission to God. It is, therefore, a form of idola­try, and consequently is not the path to freedom from demonic influence. An example of an unacceptable method is seeking to help an individual overcome homosexual practices through overt het­erosexual activities outside of marriage. The goal of overcoming homosexual activity is good, but the means of accomplishing it transgresses biblical standards & thus cannot be condoned. Another example of unacceptable methods is to encourage counselees to begin to deal with suppressed hostility & rage by imagining they are hitting, kicking, or otherwise harming the individual with whom they are angry. Learning to deal with anger constructively means learning when and how to express it. But to imagine doing so in destructive ways is inconsistent with biblical teachings, particularly when we consider that what we think often leads to corresponding actions (see Proverbs 23:7, Matthew 12:33-37). The goal is good, but the method may make the person vulnerable to demonic influence. Goals We are equally concerned with the goals of counseling; they must also be consistent with biblical teachings. One additional concern is that even those goals that seem superficially legiti­mate may be unacceptable if they are not held in proper priority. Jack's desire to maintain his marriage is a God-honoring goal, but it becomes unacceptable when Jack uses threats, harass­ment, intimidation, & physical abuse to keep his wife in the relationship. Superficially, it may seem that Jack's problem is the means he uses to keep his wife involved with him. However, the goal of keeping the marriage together at any cost has become more important to Jack than his submission & obedience to God; in effect, Jack's wife has become his god. Another example of a problematic goal is seeking to free an individual of guilt regarding sexual promiscuity while that per­son continues practicing such behavior. Freedom from guilt is a legitimate goal, but not for the individual who continues trans­gressing God-given standards of conduct. In such instances, guilt is a God-given warning signal that danger lies ahead. In many instances the methods & goals in question are not so easily evaluated. Thus, a good working knowledge of Scripture is of great value for every counselor, particularly a counselor dealing with the demonically influenced. Since, as we have seen, the number of persons demonically influenced is far greater than most of us have supposed, this is a concern for virtually every counselor. The significance of recognizing subtle sins cannot be overes­timated. Because any habitual sinful pattern provides an avenue for potential demonic influence, we must be concerned espe­cially about those sins that seem to be socially acceptable. Many of these, in devious ways, involve "false gods." False gods are anything that is more important to a person than his or her relationship and commitment to the living God. These idols may be such diverse things as the car the person drives, the house in which he or she lives, or personal appear­ance, clothes, athletic success, academic achievement, or business success. Sadly, most of us-often secretly, or even overtly-admire people who are obsessed with false gods. In this way, we show that we tend to agree with them about the importance of the goals & objects they have chosen. The heart is truly deceitful & desperately wicked; only God can know it fully (Jer. 17:9-10). To be able to recognize some of these more subtle forms of false worship we need to seek God's wisdom diligently & consistently. 182 Counseling Approaches People under various degrees of demonic influence, or even those with worldviews different from the Christian worldview, may come to us for help with more limited goals, or quite different goals from what we as Christians might wish. For example, they may not wish to become Christian. Also, they may choose to continue living in a way that we perceive as harmful or sinful. A couple may be living together without the benefit of marriage. In such instances it is essential to respect the wishes of the person or persons seeking counseling. While it is appropriate to encourage such a couple to consider changing their goals, ultimately the counselor must accept the goal of the counselee, or decline to offer counsel.
ASSESSING THE PROBLEM One of the most important initial concerns of counseling is the careful assessment of the counselee's current condition. This involves two elements: examining for evidence that demonic influence is present & seeing what other conditions might also be involved. These conditions could account for disturbance in mood, thought or behavior; they may also complicate the pri­mary problem. In any event, they must be identified and dealt with in an appropriate fashion if the person is to become whole. Neglecting to deal with all of them may doom the counselor's efforts to free the person from demonic influence, or may result in a subsequent recurrence of the problem. For example, depression may result from a number of factors: grief over the loss of a loved one, losing one's job or health, financial reverses, or a variety of other factors; disorders ofblood electrolyte levels, perhaps due to illness or the side effects of medication; substance abuse; a brain tumor (benign or cancer­ous); psychological stresses, such as interpersonal conflict; or chronic fatigue. What could be more discouraging or irresponsi­ble than to provide extended counseling for depression while an untreated medical condition progresses to the danger point? Similarly, it is both futile & potentially harmful to attempt to expel demons from a person who is suffering from a mental disorder. Given the high degree of similarity in the symptoms of mental disorders & demonic influence noted earlier, considerable care must be given to exploring and evaluating the problem before commencing treatment. Medical Evaluation While depression is not generally believed to be an indication of demonic influence, many other conditions which have physi­cal roots may be confused with it. Broadly speaking, these include all of the organic psychotic conditions described previ­ously. Among the physical factors that could account for such disturbances are head injuries, diseases affecting mental func­tioning (such as a stroke, tumors, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia), the effects of drug toxicity or drug withdrawal (whether legal or illegal), and exposure to environmental toxins. Referral for appropriate medical evaluation is essential. It is important that the physician be informed that the patient is receiving counseling & also be told of the nature of the prob­lems he or she is experiencing. When demonic influence is suspected it may be especially helpful to refer the person to a Christian physician, or at least to one who is sympathetic with such concerns. In this manner the patient can acknowledge his or her spiritual concerns and receive needed medical evaluation and care without being scorned for personal religious beliefs. Psychological Evaluation Besides the fact that their symptoms are similar, physical disor­ders, mental disorders, and demonic influence may all be present in a counselee since the presence of any one of the three results in greater susceptibility to the others. For this reason, psychological evaluation is needed to discover whether the symptoms may be partly or completely the result of psychological factors. In such an evaluation, the person will be examined for evidence of psy­chotic conditions in particular, since these may produce symp­toms similar to demonic influence. The person will be examined for symptoms of other mental disorders as well. Psychological testing should also be conducted to assess the person's general psychological and intellectual/cognitive functioning. 1 dimension of psychological evaluation involves assessing the degree to which the person may be exaggerating or even faking the problem behaviors. Often, a person will pretend to have mental disorders in order to gain various personal or social benefits accorded those presumed to be mentally ill, such as hospitalization or freedom from work & other responsibilities. Other factors that may be included in psychological evalua­tion are current intellectual functioning, learning disabilities, neuropsychological functioning, and such aspects of interper­sonal behavior as aggressiveness & ability to relate positively with people. In seeking a psychological evaluation, it is again important to find psychologists who are Christian, or who are at least open-­minded about spiritual problems, especially demonic influence. Developing good referral sources is difficult, but essential. Spiritual Evaluation Even when physical or psychological disorders have been clearly identified, this does not rule out the possibility of spir­itual problems, including demonic influence. Thus, in any in­stance where demonic influence is a consideration, counselors who are not themselves expert in dealing with spiritual issues, especially those having no experience with demonic influence, will wisely refer the counselee to appropriate spiritual coun­selors, or involve such individuals in the counseling process. Both Allison and Dickason provide examples of taking this course of action. 2 Social and Emotional Evaluation An evaluation of the person's social and emotional circum­stances is essential in understanding his or her current func­tioning. Often this is referred to as a "psychosocial evaluation." Included in such an evaluation, in addition to a history of the current problems, is a description of the person's present living situation, family membership and family history, physical and emotional health, finances, intellectual functioning, employ­ment, & education. Special attention is given to any recent changes in any of these areas. Personal History Personal history is generally included in the evaluation of social and emotional circumstances, but additional factors not ordinarily covered in such an evaluation may be essential to discern the presence or absence of demonic influence. Par­ticularly important is historical evaluation for those factors commonly associated with demonic influence, discussed in chapter 8. Additional elements of personal history to be examined in­clude recent losses of any kind, whether death, divorce, custody changes, moving, being fired or laid off, retirement, broken dreams, disappointment, or financial changes. Even "positive" changes, such as winning the lottery, may have adverse emo­tional effects. Other personal-history factors include such things as experi­encing physical or sexual abuse, participating in or being ex­posed to alcohol or drug abuse, parental absence, & social stigmatization. Often, questions like "what is the worst thing that ever happened to you?" and "what is your earliest mem­ory?" prove very helpful in this regard. Drug & Alcohol Evaluation A large number of mental disorders may result from or be worsened by the abuse of a variety of substances such as alcohol & prescription or street drugs. Some of the symptoms of sub­stance abuse are similar to those of demonic influence. Thus, it is important to comprehensively evaluate the degree to which use of substances affects the person.
COUNSELING APPROACHES In general, the approaches to be taken with persons who have come under demonic influence are the same as those for people who do not manifest such difficulties.
As we have seen, the en­trance of sin into our world has profound implications for the entire created order.
1st
, the whole of Creation, including each person, is tainted with the effects of sin.
2nd
, each person is naturally "bent" toward evil.
3rd
, the earth is the do­main of Satan and his demons, thus the potential for people to come under demonic influence is always present. Fourth, we have noted that Satan is a crafty being who chooses those ap­proaches that are most effective in accomplishing his ends. In the contemporary Western world, with its strong materialistic reductionism, it is not surprising that Satan chooses to work within this worldview rather than to appear in an overtly spiritual (immaterial) fashion. Finally, we have seen that physical dis­eases, mental disorders, & demonic influence are all the result of this process of sin in the world & satanic activity; all are instigated by Satan, yet all serve God's sovereign purposes and are under divine control. Because of the many fundamental similarities between mental disorders & demonic influence, treatment of these diverse problems often may be approached in similar ways. The commonly accepted approaches to counseling are generally helpful to persons experiencing demonic influence in its more blatant as well as its subtle forms. The 1 important exception is when demonic influence is so complete that the individual lacks the capacity to choose freedom from demonic control. In these instances, however rare, delivering the person from demonic control is a necessary precursor to counseling. Only then is he or she able to choose continued freedom from demonic control. However, it must be acknowledged that this person may choose to allow, or even to seek, demonic powers & control once more. 1 additional precaution is suggested here. Since deliver­ance and exorcism are essentially religious processes, it is recom­mended that they be done in a religious setting and by religious counselors, such as pastors and lay Christian ministers. While involuntary treatment for drug and alcohol abuse is permitted by law under certain conditions, the legality of involuntary de­liverance or exorcism is likely to be problematic; it is also likely to violate ethical guidelines for professional counselors such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and marriage and family counselors. In many respects, involuntary deliverance or exorcism is analogous to involuntarily detoxification for alcohol or drug abuse. Once the involuntary restraints are removed, the person may choose to continue in the treatment & recovery process, or may resume substance use at the first opportunity. Further, even though the person makes the initial choice for continued recovery, he or she may waver & stumble repeatedly before the new patterns of recovery & sobriety become well estab­lished. Experience shows that recovered substance abusers undergo an average of 3 detoxifications before they reach the point of stable abstinence. As more information is gathered on the process of deliverance from demonic influence & possession (oppression), similar patterns may emerge. Satan's ways are both devious & truly enslaving. Considerable diligence and persistence, and much help from others, is required to become free from them. A number of specific counseling strategies are of particular help to those who have come under demonic influence. These include providing emotional support, implementing behavioral change, correcting errors of thought & perception, & con­fronting patterns of self-deception & denial. It may be helpful to involve the person in both individual & group counseling to facilitate the needed changes. Providing Emotional Support "Beginnings are hard; all beginnings are hard," says a charac­ter in Chaim Potok's My Name Is Asher Lev. Certainly this is true of beginning the radical life-change that is essential to gaining freedom from demonic influence. To successfully undergo this process, the individual must have a great deal of encouragement & emotional support. Counseling is 1 important way in which emotional support may be provided. The person undergoing change needs to be encouraged to ex­perience and express his or her emotions. Bitterness, anger, disappointment, discouragement, & other unpleasant emotions (or complex combinations of emotions and thoughts) need to be acknowledged, evaluated, & resolved. Experiences may need to be examined & reinterpreted. Old hurts need to be forgiven & put to rest. Encouragement must be provided to initiate new patterns of interaction with others. In addition to counseling on an individual basis, the person also needs to deal with emotional issues and to receive support in a group setting such as group counseling may afford. In some instances, this may be accomplished through active involvement in a small "shepherding" or fellowship group in a local church. In such groups, while Bible study is an important part, the focus must be broader, involving fellowship, prayer, mutual support & encouragement, burden-bearing, shared meals, working together on tasks of spiritual service, & corporate prayer. Jane Jane came complaining of such profound depression that she needed antidepressant medication as well as counsel­ing. When I 1st saw her she had been involved for some time in an extramarital affair. A Christian, she knew that the affair was wrong; she was experiencing considerable guilt, yet she found her marriage so unsatisfying that she was reluctant to give up the other man. Initially, counseling provided most of Jane's much-needed emotional support. With my encouragement, she gradually be­came more involved in a few friendships which provided ac­ceptance, support, and belonging. As Jane & I worked together we discovered that she had a lot of resentment toward her husband. Some of it grew out of misunderstandings and misinterpretations of his interactions with her; these needed correction. Other hurts needed to be forgiven. As we worked through these issues, we also gave attention to a more realistic appraisal of her relationship with the other man. Gradually, Jane decided to break off her affair, though 3-4 times she reinitiated contact. As her de­pression and guilt lifted, and as she began to understand & accept herself as a person whom God had made & whom God loved just as she was, Jane gradually developed the desire to deal with problems in her relationship with her husband. At this point our emphasis shifted toward developing new patterns of behavior which would be more productive in dealing with him (see below).
Correcting Thought & Perception
Most of us carry with us some degree of distortion in our thoughts & perceptions. Though many are able to live productively despite such distortions, distortions in thought are disabling in some instances. The modern approach of cognitive behavior therapy specializes in correcting patterns of thinking & perception that contribute to guilt, depression, anxiety, & a variety of other mental problems. We find in Scripture that 1 of the basic remedies for errors in thinking is through learning & meditating on God's Word. Psalm 119 addresses this matter at length; see also Jeremiah 17: 10 and Romans 1:21-2:2.
COUNSELING AND THE DEMONIC
Sometimes, thinking disorders result from conscious or un­conscious efforts at self-deception. Most of the classic defense mechanisms described in the psychological literature are forms of distorted thinking & perception. At times, misperceptions & thinking errors are the unwitting result of exposure to the sinful patterns of others. For example, the person who grows up with alcoholic parents is commonly exposed to certain patterns of behavior which result in distorted thinking & behavior patterns that often produce mental disorders, adult alcoholism, & perhaps demonic influence.3  Jane's father was extremely critical. When she failed to measure up to his expectations, no reason or explanation was considered valid. His wrath & punishment were certain, but forgiveness seemed impossible. As we worked together, Jane discovered that she was unable to believe that others, even God, could forgive her. She in turn found it difficult to forgive those who offended her. Gradually she was able to discover that others did forgive her, and she began to experience God's forgiveness. She also was able to begin to forgive those who had offended her. Through this process Jane gradually changed her belief about being unforgivable. Behavioral Change As a general rule, 1 dimension of being under demonic in­fluence is the presence of various sinful or destructive patterns of behavior. Typically, behaviors involve a complex pattern, an interplay among thoughts, feelings, & behavior. For instance, at Satan's urging, Eve chose to eat the forbidden fruit. She doubted God's word that she would surely die (thought), she desired to know as God knew (emotion/motivation), & she took the fruit & ate it (behavior). Behavior patterns that lead up to demonic influence are complex. Typically, they involve both the presence of sinful behavior & the absence of alternative godly conduct. The problem with a thief is not only that he or she takes things that belong to others. It also includes elements of greed, ingrati­tude, & selfishness-thoughts & feelings-and the absence of desirable behaviors such as working to meet personal needs & giving to meet the needs of others (see Ephesians 4:17-24 Counseling Approaches). Behavioral psychologists such as B. F. Skinner have shown that problem behavior involves both behavioral excesses & deficiencies. For example, the person who throws tantrums or is aggressive also lacks appropriate negotiating & cooperative behaviors.4 In Jane's case, the fact that she was seeing another man was an obvious behavior problem. As I came to know her better, I learned that part of what was missing was the effective com­munication of anger toward her husband, followed by an effec­tive solving of problems in their relationship. As we worked together, she learned how to communicate disappointments & hurts to her husband as well as how to invite & encourage him to share such experiences with her. Often this process is referred to as assertiveness training.5 For Jane, the goal was to develop intimacy with her husband through the sharing of thoughts & feelings, thus paving the way for realistic problem solving. Confronting Self-Deception & Denial Jeremiah tells us that "the heart is deceitful above all things & desperately wicked." Many other Scriptures echo this theme. Furthermore, the devil is the father of lies. Thus, it should come as no surprise that people with mental disorders & especially those with problems of demonic influence engage in self-deception & denial. In most instances, the denial & distortion in which they engage is subtle; it is rare that we fall for blatant untruths; but tainted or twisted truth may deceive us fairly readily. The basic antidote to deception is truth. There is often no better way to deal with such patterns than to begin with the truth of Scripture. There are many ways to do this, both for Christians and for unbelievers. Persons concerned with demonic influence are generally professing believers; thus, there is an implicit commitment to an acceptance of Scripture. At the same time, the counselee may also be openly or subtly rebellious against Scripture, & this attitude must be addressed. Jane recognized from the outset that her involvement with the "other man" was wrong. She vacillated between being committed to him & recognizing that he was exploitive & dishonest with her at times. 1 task was to help her see both the good & the bad at the same time, thus making it more difficult for her to vacillate in this relationship. Eventually, this process helped her with the decision to end the relationship. A 2nd dimension of dealing with Jane's problems was to help her view her relationship with her husband accurately. She tended to blame him for all that was wrong & to discount her role in their problems. As we explored their relationship, how­ever, several problems emerged. The 1st was unforgiveness for offenses he had made over the years. We worked together on learning to forgive and put away past offenses. Jane also discovered a vengeful attitude toward her husband whenever he disappointed her. She confessed that she used to kick him while he was asleep. Another time, she discovered that she got back at him for not spending time with her by scheduling appointments which she knew he would not want to keep. She also recognized that he was quite tired and tended to be more irritable under such circumstances. As we explored this together, she was able to allow him free time for rest & recreation, even if it meant watching the TV. A 2nd dimension of dealing with this pattern was for her to learn to ask her husband more directly for what she wanted him to do, & to express appreciation for his cooperation. Initially, she tended to become angry with him if he in any way commu­nicated that he was not glad to do as she requested. A third dimension of dealing with this problem was Jane's discovery that she did not trust other people, & doubted they would like her; hence, she did not try to develop friendships with other women. Part of this grew out of her relationship with her mother. Group Counseling Although much of what we have discussed is best accom­plished in individual counseling, some things a.re most. effectively addressed in a group. 2 of these are social-relationship issues, & issues involving self-deception & denial. Groups can also have a powerful effect in correcting errors in perception & thinking. The literature on alcohol & substance abuse focuses on pervasive lying as a common part of the life patterns of abusers. It is so common that the following joke is considered a truism: "How do you know an alcoholic is lying? His lips are moving." It is less clearly documented, but it seems likely that those involved in overt demonic influence may also practice subtle patterns of dishonesty, especially with themselves. Thus, group counseling is an important method of treatment for such problems. Although Jane did not choose to receive group counseling, it is often helpful for those with similar problems. A large part of Jane's difficulty was relational; groups provide a helpful setting for learning new ways of relating. A major factor that may lead people into demonic influence is the desire for personal significance. This often grows out of an experience of being a social misfit. Further, extensive involve­ment in demonic influence requires personal passivity, & may in other ways interfere with normal social relationships. Thus, deficiencies in social relationships are likely to be common. For all of these reasons, group counseling is an advisable part of the counseling process.
USE OF SPIRITUAL RESOURCES As already suggested, the person seeking freedom from demonic influence needs both counseling & spiritual development. He or she ought to be involved in active worship, personal Bible study, fellowship with other believers, & active per­sonal service (ministry) of some sort, & should maintain a consistent prayer life. Being personally discipled or an active participant in a small fellowship or study group is particularly important.
This fosters spiritual growth, & also contributes to social & emotional development. While a balance of work, worship, rest, and recreation must be achieved, it is important that the individual not have large periods of free time available, especially initially. The saying, "idle hands are the devil's workshop," is most true of people who are seeking to break free from old sinful patterns involv­ing demonic influence. Being involved in meaningful activities is 1 of the most powerful antidotes to coming once more.
COUNSELING AND THE DEMONIC under satanic influence. The biblical pattern is "put off sinful ways...and put on righteousness" (Eph. 4:13-31, 5:11-18). 6 The value of this approach is underscored by the biblical alternatives: we are either slaves to sin or servants to righteous­ness.
SUMMARY In counseling with those under demonic influence, several factors are important. 1st, the counselor must be prepared spiritually, especially if the spiritual dimensions of the problems are to be met. 2nd, it is important that the goals of counseling, & methods of achieving them, be scrutinized to ensure they are consistent with biblical principles. 3rd, all the dimensions of the problems need to be evaluated: spiritual, medical, psychological, social-emotional, personal history, & drug & alcohol abuse. Each problem area discovered needs to be addressed in treatment; many aspects of this process will require cooperation with or referral to others. The ideal arrangement is for all individuals involved to work together in an effective team. 4th, counseling in both individual & group modes may be required. Such counseling should address a number of dimensions, including the provision of emotional support, correcting distortions in thinking & perception, fostering behavioral changes, & dealing with self-deception & denial. Finally, spiritual resources need to be utilized to support and aid the major changes the individual must undergo to effectively gain freedom from demonic influence. It is important to remember that freedom is not gained by the mere absence of evil spirits; it comes only when the person is effectively brought under the power of God through personal commitment, support & encouragement of others.
CHAPTER 12 - Summary and Conclusions D

Burgess, Dr Wes  The Bipolar Handbook - Real Life Questions with up to Date Answers  
www.wesburgess.yourmd.com




  -

Publications - Psychiatric

 
Amen, Dr. Daniels  http://discovermagazine.com/2016/janfeb/19-brain-scans-may-lead-to-better-diagnoses 11/30/2015
APA (American Psychiatric Association) - http://www.fcphp.usf.edu/courses/content/rfast/Resources/depression.pdf 
https://www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/counseling/APAbipolar.pdf + http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Security/citizensecurity/eeuu/documents/LTF-DomesticViolence.pdf
Need to Download http://www.lockebooks.com/elibs.php?q=Lets%20Talk%20Facts%20About%20Panic%20Disorder
Post Traumatic Stress http://www.fcphp.usf.edu/courses/content/rfast/Resources/PTSD%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf +
"One in a series of (secular medical) brochures designed to reduce stigmas associated with mental illnesses by promoting informed factual discussion of the disorders & their psychiatric treatments. This brochure was developed for educational purposes & does not necessarily reflect opinion or policy of the American Psychiatric Association. For more information, please visit www.healthyminds.org (or preferably google for online booklet)."
Also available - https://www.appi.org/products/dsm-manual-of-mental-disorders?quicklinks
http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/05/the-real-problems-with-psychiatry/275371/ - On May 22, the American Psychiatric Association will release the 5th Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the DSM-5.
It classifies psychiatric diagnoses & criteria required to meet them. Gary
Greenberg, one of the book's biggest critics, claims these disorders are not real: they're invented. Author of Manufacturing Depression: The Secret History of a Modern Disease and contributor to The New Yorker, Mother Jones, The New York Times & other publications, Greenberg is a practicing psychotherapist. The Book of Woe: The Making of the DSM-5 and the Unmaking of Psychiatry is his exposé of the business behind the creation of the new manual...
How the 1st DSM, published in 1952, was conceived One of the reasons was to count people. The 1st collections of diagnoses were called the 'statistical manual,' not the 'diagnostic & statistical manual.' There were also parochial reasons. As the rest of medicine became oriented toward diagnosing illnesses by seeking their causes in biochemistry,
in the late 19th, early 20th century, the claim to authority of any medical specialty hinged on its ability to diagnose suffering. To say 'okay, your sore throat and fever are strep throat.' But psychiatry was unable to do that and was in danger of being discredited. As early as 1886, prominent psychiatrists worried that they would be left behind, or written out of the medical kingdom. For reasons not entirely clear, the government turned to the American Medico-Psychological Association, (later the American Psychiatric Association, or APA), to tell them how many mentally ill people were out there. The APA used it as an opportunity to establish its credibility.The difference between disease & disorder is an attempt on the part of psychiatry to evade the problem they're presented with. Disease is a kind of suffering that's caused by a bio-chemical pathology. Something that can be discovered and targeted with magic bullets. But in many cases our suffering can't be diagnosed that way. Psychiatry was in a crisis in the 1970s over questions like 'what is a mental illness?' & 'what mental illnesses exist?' 1 of the 1st things they did was try to finesse the problem that no mental illness met that definition of a disease. They had yet to identify what the pathogen was, what the disease process consisted of, & how to cure it. So they created a category called "disorder." It's a rhetorical device. It's saying 'it's sort of like a disease,' but not calling it a disease because all the other doctors will jump down their throats asking, 'where's your blood test?' The reason there haven't been any sensible findings tying genetics or any kind of molecular biology to DSM categories is not only that our instruments are crude, but also that the DSM categories aren't real. It's like using
a map of the moon to find your way around Russia.
Would you say that these terms: disorder, disease, illness, just different names for the same concept?
I would. Psychiatrists wouldn't. Well, psychiatrists would say it sometimes but wouldn't say it other times. They will say it when it comes to claiming that they belong squarely in the field of medicine. But if you press them and ask if these disorders exist in the same way that cancer and diabetes exist, they'll say no. It's not that there are no biological correlates to any mental suffering; of course there are. But the specificity and sensitivity that we require to distinguish pneumonia from lung cancer, even that kind of distinction, it just doesn't exist.
What are the most common misconceptions about the scientific nature of diseases, such as depression?
I guarantee you that in the course of our conversation a doctor is telling a patient, 'you have a chemical imbalance;
that's why you're depressed. Take Prozac.' Despite the fact that every doctor who knows anything knows that there is no biochemical imbalance that causes depression.  Most doctors understand that a diagnosis of depression doesn't really tell you anything other than what you already knew, that doesn't stop them from saying it.
Research on the brain is still in its infancy.  Will we ever know enough about the brain to prove that certain psychiatric diagnoses have a direct biological cause?
I'd be willing to bet everything that whenever it happens, whatever we find out about the brain and mental suffering is not going to map, at all, onto the DSM categories.
Let's say we can elucidate the entire structure of a given kind of mental suffering.
We're not going to be able to say, "here's Major Depressive Disorder, and here's what it looks like in the brain." If there's any success, it will involve a whole remapping of the terrain of mental disorders.  Psychiatry may very likely take very small findings and trump them up into something they aren't. But the most honest outcome would be to go back to the old days and just look at symptoms. They might get good at elucidating the circuitry of fear or anxiety or these kinds of things.
What is the difference between a disorder and distress that is a normal occurrence?
That distinction is made by a clinician, whether it's a family doctor or a psychiatrist or whoever. But nobody knows exactly how to make that determination. There are no established thresholds. Even if you could imagine how that would work, it would have to be a subjective analysis of the extent to which the person's functioning is impaired. How are you going to measure that? Doctors are supposed to measure 'clinical significance.' What's that? For many people, the fact that someone shows up in their office is clinical significance. I'm not going to say that's wrong, but it's not scientific.
There's a conflict of interest, if I don't determine clinical significance, I don't get paid. 
You say 1 of the issues with taking these categories too seriously is that it eliminates the moral aspect behind certain behaviors. 
 of chalking up what we think is 'evil' to what we think of as mental disease. Our gut reaction is always:
'That was really sick. Those guys in Boston; they were really sick.' But how do we know? Unless you decide in advance that anybody who does anything heinous is sick. This society is very wary of using the (moral) term: 'evil.'  But I firmly believe there is such a thing as evil. It's circular; thinking that anybody who commits suicide is depressed; anybody who goes into a school with a loaded gun & shoots (murders/kills) people must have a mental illness. There's a certain kind of comfort in that, but there's no indication for it, particularly because we don't know what mental illness is.
How do diagnoses affect people?
One of the overlooked ways is that diagnoses can change people's lives for the better. Asperger's Syndrome is probably the most successful psychiatric disorder ever in this respect. It created a community. It gave people whose primary symptom was isolation a way to belong & provided resources to those who were diagnosed. It can also have bad effects. A depression diagnosis gives people an identity formed around having a disease that we know doesn't exist, & how that can divert resources from where they might be needed. Imagine how much less depression there would be if people weren't worried about tuition, health care, & retirement.  Those are all things that aren't provided by Prozac.
What are the dangers of over-diagnosing a population?
Are false positives worse than false negatives?
I believe that false positives, people who are diagnosed because there's a diagnosis for them.  They show up in a doctor's office, is a much bigger problem. It (false positives) changes people's identities, it encourages the use of drugs whose side effects & long-term effects are unknown, & main effects are poorly understood.
In 1850, doctor Samuel Cartwright invented 'drapeto-mania,' a disease causing slaves to run away.
How do social and historical context affect our understanding of mental illness?
Cartwright was a slaveholder's doctor from New Orleans; he believed in the inferiority of what he called the 'African races.' He believed that abolitionism was based on a misguided notion that black people & white people were essentially equal. He thought that the desire for freedom in a black person was pathological because black people were born to be enslaved. To aspire to freedom was a betrayal of their nature, a disease.
He invented 'drapeto-mania,' the impulse to run away from slavery.
Assuming there wasn't horrible cruelty being inflicted on the slaves, they were 'sick.'
He came up with a few diagnostic criteria and presented it to his colleagues.
So we corrected our notion of what counts as a 'disease.'
Is there a modern equivalent?
Homosexuality is the most obvious example. Until 1973, it was listed as a disease.
It's very easy to see what's wrong with 'drapeto-mania,' but it's easier to see the balancing act involved in saying homosexuality is or isn't a disease, how something has to shift in society. The people who called homosexuality a disease weren't necessarily bigots or homophobes; they were just trying to understand people who wanted to love people of their own sex. Disease is a way to understand difference; that includes compassion. What has to shift is the (unbiblical) idea that same-sex love is acceptable. Once that idea is there, it doesn't make sense to call homosexuality a disease. 

Who was involved in the creation of the DSM-5?
The American Psychiatric Association owns the DSM. They aren't only responsible for it: they own, sell, and license it.
The DSM is created by a group of committees. It's a bureaucratic process. In place of scientific findings, the DSM uses expert consensus to determine what mental disorders exist and how you can recognize them. Disorders come into the book the same way a law becomes part of the book of statutes. People suggest, discuss, and vote-on it. Homosexuality was deleted from the DSM by a referendum.
A straight up vote: yes or no. It's not always that explicit; votes are not public.
In the case of the DSM-5, committee members were forbidden to talk about it, so we'll never really know what the deliberations were. They all signed non-disclosure agreements.
What are the important changes made in the new DSM; how will they affect patients?
It's going to cause a lot of trouble when Asperger's Syndrome disappears. It may cause some trouble when the bereavement exclusion disappears. That's a good example of why the APA's going to be in trouble.
It was so unnecessary, so stupid. They've made the absurd statement that they know the difference, 2 weeks after someone's wife dies, whether that person is 'depressed,' or just 'in mourning.' Come on. Who are these guys? 
The APA released a series of drafts of the DSM-5 before publication. Why?
They solicited public input, to their great credit. But they never said what they were doing with it. They said, 'We got this number of responses,' but not what the responses were. How they influenced the process, if at all. The other problem with the drafts is that they deleted them. The history of how these things developed will be difficult to trace unless you happened to make copies of the website, which was in explicit violation of the APA's copyright. They also tried to prevent people from using the draft criteria in any kind of academic paper; an unprecedented move. They demanded that anybody who wanted to use the criteria would have to seek & obtain their permission for academic publication. Nobody's ever done that. There were a couple of high profile, embarrassing studies that were conducted with the draft criteria.  Once that happened, the APA asserted copyright over the draft criteria.
The APA considers the DSM-5 a 'living document.' What do you think they mean?
It's one of those rhetorical flourishes that...is a real problem. There's a difference between a constitution and a book of medical diagnoses. It's not entirely clear what they mean by 'living document,' but it appears that they want to update, as evidence comes in. That's not a bad idea; they don't want to go through 1 of these massive, expensive, embarrassing overhauls of the diagnostic manual every 5, 10, or 15 years, they want to update as they go. But in the meantime, people are getting diagnosed, drugs are getting developed and prescribed, research is being done.  Nobody knows to what extent things will get revised as time goes on. The APA is trying to say it's always in flux.  But if that's the case, why should we let it have so much power?
What does the DSM have power over?
To get an indication from the FDA, a drug company has to tie its drug to a DSM disorder. You can't just develop a drug for anxiety. You have to develop the drug for Generalized Anxiety Disorder or Major Depressive Disorder. You can't just ask for special services for a student who is awkward. You have to get special services for a student with autism.
In court
(the) mental illnesses (diagnosis) comes from the DSM. If you want insurance to pay for your therapy,
you have to be diagnosed with a mental illness. Whatever future contact you have with the health care system will be affected by the fact that a mental illness is in your dossier. If you call it a living document, what happens to all the people who are diagnosed with Asperger's when that's thrown out?
Al Frances chaired the task force for the DSM-IV & has become 1 of the biggest critics of the DSM-5. What do you think of his arguments?
We agree that the DSM does not capture real illnesses, that it's a set of constructs. We disagree over what that means. He believes that that doesn't matter to the overall enterprise of psychiatry & its authority to diagnose & treat our mental illnesses. I believe it constitutes a flaw at the foundation of psychiatry. If they don't have real diseases, they don't belong in real medicine. Al's attack is overdone. I think he's really trying to keep scrutiny off of the whole DSM enterprise. That's why he's been so adamant that you don't throw the baby out with the bathwater; he believes that the DSM-IV, for all of its flaws, its still worthwhile. I disagree.
Frances also worries that your criticisms are anti-psychiatry.
It's the universal paranoia of psychiatry that everybody who disagrees with them is pathological.
You can't disagree with a psychiatrist without getting a diagnosis. I've been writing critically about psychiatry for 10 years. I've always encountered that. Psychiatry is a defensive profession. They have a lot to protect.  They know their weakness. To repel criticism in the strongest way possible, from their point of view; you diagnose the critic.
How does the DSM relate to both psychiatry and psychology fields?
Psychiatry's in charge of the DSM. Psychologists & other mental health professionals use the DSM, but psychiatrists have the power & money. I'm critical of the mental health professions in general, including my own practice, but the APA has appropriated this business to themselves. They guard it jealousy, they protect it with ruthless tactics, & yes, they take a disproportionate amount of the heat for this thing; but it's their baby. They make hundreds of millions of dollars off of this deal.
Will the APA lose credibility?
Of course it will. The DSM-5 will come out on May 22 and people will take their pot shots at it, like shooting fish in a barrel. I had to be convinced to write this book, though.  How hard is it to criticize an organization that seriously thinks that it's okay to call 'Internet Use Disorder' a mental illness? They're going to take shot after shot.  The response will be ineffectual and weak. They'll bob, weave, talk about the 'living document,' & unleash their line of bull.
Is there a solution?
The solution is to take the thing away from them. The APA owns these diagnoses.  I didn't ask permission because I don't care; let them sue me. But if anyone wants to put diagnostic criteria into this book, they have to pay the APA.
That's absurd.  If you add the vacuousness of the document & incompetence with which the revision was carried out; take the (flawed) thing away from them. (5/2/2013 Edited by .) Read chapter 1 online.
https://www.amazon.com/The-Book-Woe-Unmaking-Psychiatry/dp/0399158537#reader_0399158537
APA or America Psychiatric Assoc publications. The history and influence of the American Psychiatric Association - Google
Discounts to mental health facility or agency  1-800-36-8455  202-682-6349
American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. www.appi.org  appi@psych.org
 
http://www.ranzcp.org/latest-news/new-australian-new-zealand-journal-of-psychiatry.html -
The Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Psychiatry RSS     Catatonia following abrupt stoppage of clozapine -
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15602101
-
Baystate Professional Book Service Inc  1-888-396-9995 toll free 
Order any psychiatric publication
Yoram Bilu - Demonic explanations of disease among Moroccan Jews in Israel
http://www.springerlink.com/content/m271v602141344w5/ @ http://www.springerlink.com/content/m271v602141344w5/fulltext.pdf - 1974-1977 interviews -
Caplan, psychologist Paula J  They Say You're Crazy - How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who's Normal - The Inside Story of the DSM  www.dacapopress.com
 
Christian Psychiatry by Frank Minirth & Walter Byrd www.amazon.com
Critical Half Summer 2--6 vol 4 #1 Issue on 10/40 window Challenges and Interventions for Women Affected by Conflict - www.womenforwomen.org
 

Collier
, Andrew  RD Laing - The Philosophy & Politics of Psychotherapy includes issues on schizophrenia - Pantheon publisher - chapter 5 Defining Sanity and Madness
 

Cramer
, JL  Asylum history -Buckinghamshire County Pauper Lunatic Asylum--St. John's 
American Psychiatric Press - Discusses caged & chained up patients.
http://books.google.com/books?id=v_N6EL0ZVC4C&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&dq=monks+chained+mentally
+ill&source=bl&ots=-wh0muJPN0&sig=MyjXXvAcAzWGj2qanl-Nun8UM_s&hl=en&ei=TpA1SvLxI8mMtge6jNH4Dg&sa=X&oi=book_
result&ct=result&resnum=9#PPP1,M1
 


DSM - Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - "insurance & psychiatric Bible" - Manual by American Psychiatric Assoc  www.apa.org  http://www.psychiatryonline.com/referral.aspx

DSM
- http://www.appi.org/psychiatryonline/Pages/PsychiatryOnlineGoogleAdwords.html?gclid=CMb_hoSTiK4CFYPc4Aodm2um3w

DSM
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demonic_possession - "Demonic possession is (currently) NOT recognized as a psychiatric or medical diagnosis by either the DSM-IV or the ICD-10. There are many psychological ailments commonly misunderstood as demonic possession, particularly dissociative identity disorder.
In cases of dissociative identity disorder in which the alter personality is questioned as to its identity, 29% are reported to identify themselves as demons,[16] but doctors see this as a mental disease called demonomania or demonopathy, a monomania in which the patient believes that he or she is possessed by one or more demons.[17]"

DSM
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirit_possession - "The DSM-IV-TR, in describing the differences between spirit possession and Dissociative Identity Disorder, identifies only the claim that the extra personality is an external spirit or entity, lacking that, there would be NO difference between the 2 conditions.[18"] - http://www.voy.com/160690/4.html

DSM
- http://www.spiritualcompetency.com/dsm4/lesson3_10.asp - "The oldest theories about the etiology of mental disorders identifies spirit possession (demonization) as the causal agent. 1 of the signs of Christ's divinity was his ability to cast out demons from people who were possessed (oppressed)." 

DEUTSCH
, ALBERT - THE MENTALLY ILL IN AMERICA - A HISTORY OF THEIR CARE AND TREATMENT FROM COLONIAL TIMES - http://www.google.com/products?q=1406736368
http://books.google.com/books?id=EReOLD-ALNoC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=monks+chained+mentally+
ill&source=bl&ots=nGC3OKO8T9&sig=
q9zFUJXHCKubc2dUWrj1i6Wz8q4&hl=en&ei=35c1SqG1K-GMtgfjnfn4Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7 
discussion of Bagdad's Dar-al-Maristan asylum, for one
Abnormal Psychology over Time - shortcomings of DSM - The Myth of the Reliability of DSM - (DSM psychiatric diagnostic manual is highly subjective & influenced by local/ generational ethics/morals/politicks; for instance homosexuality used to be classified as abnormal, but today not so.  Additionally in recent times NO credence is given to spiritual matters, especially demons; 1 seeing/conversing with an invisible spirit is likely to be labeled as psychotic.)
DSM#5 - Gary Greenberg - http://www.amazon.com/The-Book-Woe-Unmaking-Psychiatry/dp/0399158537#reader_0399158537
http://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/the-nature-of-suffering-gary-greenberg-talks-about-the-book-of-woe/
"Psychotherapy, like psychiatric medications, and like much of medical treatment, works by the placebo effect. That’s not what makes me skeptical, however. What makes me skeptical is the way psychotherapy has become medicalized. Therapy, or at least psychoanalysis, climbed into bed with medicine in the late 1920s, purely for mercenary reasons, & the D.S.M.-5 is only the latest offspring of that affair. I like the fact that I provide a placebo treatment. “Placebo effect” is just another way to say that the cure is, at least in part, in the relationship between the healer & the healed.
What psychotherapy does for people is to provide them with a relationship in which they can feel cared for & challenged, encouraged to tell the truth & required to hear it, & which allows them to understand their suffering in the context of their lives. This can be pointless & ineffective, but it can also be transformative."
DSM #4 - http://justines2010blog.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/dsm-iv.pdf good resource
DSM#5 - Mental Health 5/2013 Science Friday radio programs
DSM#5 - http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/content.aspx?bookid=556&sectionid=41101758
from http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/book.aspx?bookid=556 
"Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders include schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders, & schizotypal (personality) disorder. They are defined by abnormalities in one or more of the following five domains: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking (speech), grossly disorganized or abnormal motor behavior (including catatonia), & negative symptoms."
DSM #6 4/1/2013 - http://www.papersfromsidcup.com/graham-daveys-blog/dsm-6
 

Hicks
, James W - 50 Signs of Mental Illness - www.yalebooks.com
Conventional approach to psychiatry.  Book has expansive/excellent summary of conventional web sites.

Hoffer
, Dr Abram Adventures in Psychiatry  www.orthomed.org - Nutrition & Mental Health newsletter Autumn 2005 book review - Hoffer, a psychiatrist aged 88, is the father of orthomolecular medicine, at least for schizophrenia.  It is he who pioneered the use of vitamin B3 (preferably more tolerable niacinamide) for psychiatric disease & paranoia.  All his patients, who were/are faithful to his nutritional regimen, were/are able to work, earn an income, & pay taxes.  He is also famed for his orthomolecular cancer treatments, just for beginners.
 
International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC)
International Psychiatry-in-Practice - www.psychiatry-in-practice.com
 
http://www.mentalhealth.com/p20-grp.html internet site maintained by secular/conventional psychiatrist - 2002 -

1-202-682-6000
 
Laing, RD & Esterson A  Sanity, Madness and the Family a Pelican publication on madness
Joseph A. Lieberman, III, M.D., M.P.H. & Marian R. Stuart, Ph.D.- The BATHE Method: Incorporating Counseling & Psychotherapy Into the Everyday Management of Patients https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC181054/ @ ncbi.nlm.nih.gov &/or
. 1999 Apr; 1(2): 35–38. "The physician can probe for the psychosocial context by BATHEing the patient.As a charting convention, the problem-oriented medical record classifies progress notes into subjective, objective, assessment, & plan elements (SOAP). Problems are listed & notes are arranged in SOAP fashion. In the larger context, BATHEing your patients as you SOAP them will give the physician useful information, take only about a minute, screen for emotional problems, & be therapeutic for the patient.
The BATHE technique is a simple patient-centered procedure that consists of a series of 4 specific questions about the patient's background, affect, troubles, & handling of the current situation, followed by an empathic response (Table 1): The BATHE Procedure:
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When you BATHE a patient, you are performing a psychotherapeutic procedure. Psychotherapy means using your words and relationship with patients as procedures to affect patients' views of their reality. This therapy seeks to empower patients to trust themselves & others, confirm their positive feelings about themselves, & enhance their ability to control the circumstances of their lives.
The BATHE technique will also serve as a rough screening test for anxiety, depression,
or situational stress disorders & should be routinely employed. It is an important technique to remember, because 25% to 75% of outpatient visits are triggered by these disorders.5 As a screening tool, the test is acceptable to patients, it catches these conditions early, & time costs are minimal.
The BATHE technique is a specific verbal procedure. To be used effectively, it must be practiced. As with any procedure, some health care providers may feel awkward at 1st, but will develop confidence & a comfort level after doing a number of them correctly. The technique can be used for a variety of purposes, as shown in Table 2: Reasons to Use the BATHE Technique:

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SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS - When using the BATHE technique, try to say nothing except for the specific BATHE questions. Discourage patients from elaborating at length about the circumstances or details of their situations. Instead, summarize briefly and ask the next question.  Do not interpret or analyze the patients' responses. Resist giving advice.
When patients answer the affect question by giving more background information, intervene quickly by repeating,
“yes, but how do you feel about that?” until you get a response. When patients express positive feelings, do not presume that there is nothing troubling them. Instead, modify the T (trouble) question appropriately. Remember that it is not the health care worker's job to fix the patients' problems, only to provide support and clarification. There are very few contraindications for using BATHE except for ones shown in Table 3:6  - Reasons Not to Use the BATHE Technique
FOLLOW-UP
  - When a psychosocial problem is uncovered, the health care provider can proceed with the physical examination to rule out organic problems & then ask the patient to return to discuss the situation further. When serious problems emerge, referral to a mental health specialist should be discussed. It is important, however, that both patient and physician are in accord that a problem exists & a follow-up visit to the physician is beneficial. When the patient returns, the opening BATHE question becomes 'Tell me what's been happening since I saw you.'  For further information and additional techniques, see: The 15 Minute Hour.
1  "(Dr. Lieberman recommends parents NOT question but rather ask teen for an opinion, for best communication/results.)

Internet Mental Health © 1995-2009 Phillip W. Long, MD - anti-orthomolecular medicine

 
Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences  www.psychiatryonline.org

Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology - Book by: Schatzberg M.D.; Cole, M.D.; & DeBattista, M.D.

Kenneth McAll MD (Psychiatrist in England) - A Guide to Healing the Family Tree  www.marianland.com 

McHugh
, Dr Paul (professor of psychiatry at John Hopkins University) 
The Mind Has Mountains - http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/title_pages/8960.html   McHugh opposes physician-assisted suicide, sex-correction surgery for newborns, + takes a hard stance against traditional treatment of 'recovered memory,' 'sexual reassignment,' 'multiple personality disorder,' 'physician-assisted suicide,' 'Vietnam-specific post traumatic stress syndrome'. 
President George Bush appointed McHugh to sit on  Presidential Council on Bioethics.
US Conference of Catholic Bishops selected McHugh to be on their National Review Board
for elimination of sexual abuse of children by clergy.
Part 4 Treating the Mind as Well as the Brain explains how the DSM-4, of the APA used by insurers for billing, contends that psychiatric problems are biological.  Rebel revisionists want to add another category called relational disorders, which would be treated mostly by therapy rather than mostly medicine. 
[Note.  This 2006 book came out just prior to (or at same time as) revision/update of DSM.]
Jonathan Metzl MD -
The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease - editorial On Race and Schizophrenia @ http://drvitelli.typepad.com/providentia/books/
 

National Library of Medicine www.gateway.nlm.nih.gov -
Orthomolecular Medicine for Physicians
Book by: Abram Hoffer  www.a1books.com

Peck
, Scott  People of the Lie  Simon & Schuster publishers - Psychiatrist Peck shares evidence that evil spirits exist & harm individuals.  However, he does not explain how to rid ourselves of evil or how to protect ourselves from evil.
Physician magazine free for Christian physicians  www.family.org
Physicians Desk Reference for Mental Health Drug Guide  Fax 1-515-284-6414
PsychiatryMatters.MD www.PsychiatryMatters.MD
Psychiatric Services in Jails & Prisons www.appi.org
Psychiatric Side Effects of Prescriptions & Over the Counter Medications
(CD-Rom available for Mac & IBM) - Book by Brown & Stoudemire, MDs www.appi.org/cat2k/8868.html
Psychotropic Drug Handbook by Alexander & Liskow
Psychosomatics Journal editorial Psychiatry & Law for Clinicians by Robert Simon, M.D. www.appi.org
Psychosomatics Journal editorial The Psychiatrist in Court by Thomas G. Gutheil, M.D.  www.appi.org
Townsend, Mary C - Nursing Diagnoses in Psychiatric Nursing - a pocket guide for care plan construction -
with DSM APA disorder insurance numerical codes/classifications - http://kiselevaev.com/jyla3056.pdf download

Sight Unseen novel by Kaye Gibbons' Recollections of her bi-polar mother -
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - http://www.psychiatrist.com/pastppp/tocnow.asp
Physicians Postgraduate Press - CME - Office of Continuing Medical Ed, PO Box 752870, Memphis, TN 38175-2870 - correspondence classes
-
Virtual Hospital  (www.vh.org)
 

Bipolar
- https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/bipolar-disorder/year-bipolar-disorder-practice-changing-articles-2018

Research & Education Chapter #6 Neurotransmitters - https://quizlet.com/122944588/ch-6-neurotransmitters-flash-cards/
Another name for serotonin is 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT).  Serotonin synthesized form is amio acid tryptophan
https://quizlet.com/21193735/acetylcholine-and-serotonin-flash-cards/ Serotonin Receptors & Serotonergic Drugs - http://cdn.neiglobal.com/content/encore/congress/2014/slides_at-enc15-14cng-09.pdf [Education of medical students druggists is a double edged sword.  Notice NO negative side effects of meds are presented to students (or patients).] http://files.differencebetween.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Difference-Between-Nicotinic-and-Muscarinic-Receptors.pdf - Different neurotransmitters are involved in nervous transmission. Acetylcholine is 1 of a neurotransmitter involved in the nervous system. There are 2 main types of receptors in which acetylcholine acts based on the agonist. The 2 main acetylcholine receptors are Nicotinic Receptors and Muscarinic receptors. Acetylcholine binds to these receptors & transmits the signals via these receptors. Nicotinic receptors are the acetylcholine receptors in which the agonist is nicotine, & are ligand-gated ion channels. Muscarinic receptors are the acetylcholine receptors in which muscarine acts as the agonist, & are G protein-coupled receptors. The key difference between nicotinic & muscarinic receptors is that Nicotinic receptors are ligand-gated ion channels, whereas Muscarinic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors. Neuromodulatory - Acetylcholine & Dopamine - biochemistry - http://www.translationalneuromodeling.org/uploads/DA_ACh_inter_20140509.pdf  
   

                                                                         2nd Opinion

https://www.bible.ca/psychiatry/psychiatry-atheistic-anti-christian-religion-priests.htm -
Remember, rehearsing one's problems can sometimes give demons power in 1 or more areas of one's life, for when we consistently speak God's truth over our life, His angels help to enforce God's purposes & character in our life.

@ https://www.madinamerica.com/2020/10/insane-medicine-chapter-one/ 10/19/2020
2Previous artile @Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology - Book by: Schatzberg M.D.; Cole, M.D.; & DeBattista, M.D.
Kenneth McAll MD (Psychiatrist in England) - A Guide to Healing the Family Tree  www.marianland.com 

McHugh
, Dr Paul (professor of psychiatry at John Hopkins University) 
The Mind Has Mountains - http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/title_pages/8960.html   McHugh opposes physician-assisted suicide, sex-correction surgery for newborns, + takes a hard stance against traditional treatment of 'recovered memory,' 'sexual reassignment,' 'multiple personality disorder,' 'physician-assisted suicide,' 'Vietnam-specific post traumatic stress syndrome'. 
President George Bush appointed McHugh to sit on  Presidential Council on Bioethics.
US Conference of Catholic Bishops selected McHugh to be on their National Review Board
for elimination of sexual abuse of children by clergy.
Part 4 Treating the Mind as Well as the Brain explains how the DSM-4, of the APA used by insurers for billing, contends that psychiatric problems are biological.  Rebel revisionists want to add another category called relational disorders, which would be treated mostly by therapy rather than mostly medicine. 
[Note.  This 2006 book came out just prior to (or at same time as) revision/update of DSM.]
Jonathan Metzl MD -
The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease - editorial On Race and Schizophrenia @ http://drvitelli.typepad.com/providentia/books/
 
National Library of Medicine www.gateway.nlm.nih.gov -
Orthomolecular Medicine for Physicians
Book by: Abram Hoffer  www.a1books.com
-
Peck
, Scott  People of the Lie  Simon & Schuster publishers - Psychiatrist Peck shares evidence that evil spirits exist & harm individuals.  However, he does not explain how to rid ourselves of evil or how to protect ourselves from evil.
Physician magazine free for Christian physicians  www.family.org Physicians Desk Reference for Mental Health Drug Guide  Fax 1-515-284-6414 PsychiatryMatters.MD www.PsychiatryMatters.MD Psychiatric Services in Jails & Prisons www.appi.org Psychiatric Side Effects of Prescriptions & Over the Counter Medications
(CD-Rom available for Mac & IBM) - Book by Brown & Stoudemire, MDs www.appi.org/cat2k/8868.html
Psychotropic Drug Handbook by Alexander & Liskow Psychosomatics Journal editorial Psychiatry & Law for Clinicians by Robert Simon, M.D. www.appi.org Psychosomatics Journal editorial The Psychiatrist in Court by Thomas G. Gutheil, M.D.  www.appi.org Townsend, Mary C - Nursing Diagnoses in Psychiatric Nursing - a pocket guide for care plan construction -
with DSM APA disorder insurance numerical codes/classifications - http://kiselevaev.com/jyla3056.pdf download

Sight Unseen novel by Kaye Gibbons' Recollections of her bi-polar mother - The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - http://www.psychiatrist.com/pastppp/tocnow.asp
Physicians Postgraduate Press - CME - Office of Continuing Medical Ed, PO Box 752870, Memphis, TN 38175-2870 - correspondence classes
- Virtual Hospital  (www.vh.org)  
Bipolar
- https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/bipolar-disorder/year-bipolar-disorder-practice-changing-articles-2018

Research & Education Chapter #6 Neurotransmitters - https://quizlet.com/122944588/ch-6-neurotransmitters-flash-cards/
Another name for serotonin is 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT).  Serotonin synthesized form is amio acid tryptophan
https://quizlet.com/21193735/acetylcholine-and-serotonin-flash-cards/ Serotonin Receptors & Serotonergic Drugs - http://cdn.neiglobal.com/content/encore/congress/2014/slides_at-enc15-14cng-09.pdf [Education of medical students druggists is a double edged sword.  Notice NO negative side effects of meds are presented to students (or patients).] http://files.differencebetween.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Difference-Between-Nicotinic-and-Muscarinic-Receptors.pdf - Different neurotransmitters are involved in nervous transmission. Acetylcholine is 1 of a neurotransmitter involved in the nervous system. There are 2 main types of receptors in which acetylcholine acts based on the agonist. The 2 main acetylcholine receptors are Nicotinic Receptors and Muscarinic receptors. Acetylcholine binds to these receptors & transmits the signals via these receptors. Nicotinic receptors are the acetylcholine receptors in which the agonist is nicotine, & are ligand-gated ion channels. Muscarinic receptors are the acetylcholine receptors in which muscarine acts as the agonist, & are G protein-coupled receptors. The key difference between nicotinic & muscarinic receptors is that Nicotinic receptors are ligand-gated ion channels, whereas Muscarinic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors. Neuromodulatory - Acetylcholine & Dopamine - biochemistry - http://www.translationalneuromodeling.org/uploads/DA_ACh_inter_20140509.pdf      

                                                                         2nd Opinion

https://www.bible.ca/psychiatry/psychiatry-atheistic-anti-christian-religion-priests.htm -
Remember, rehearsing one's problems can sometimes give demons power in 1 or more areas of one's life, for when we consistently speak God's truth over our life, His angels help to enforce God's purposes & character in our life.

@ https://www.madinamerica.com/2020/10/insane-medicine-chapter-one/ 10/19/2020

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Sami Timimi is a UK based Child & Adolescent Psychiatrist who writes from a critical psychiatry perspective on topics relating to mental health & childhood. More @ www.samitimimi.co.uk.